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Vertebrates and Invertebrates
Animals that have backbones are called Vertebrates. Ex. Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals. A backbone is a series of bones that run down the center of the back. Animals that do not have backbones are called Invertebrates. Ex. Jellyfishes, Worms, Crabs, Snails, Spiders and Insects.

'Amphibian' means 'Double Life'. Amphibians are adapted to live both on land and water.
  1. Amphibians are cold-blooded vertebrates that spend their early life in water. Most amphibians then spend their adult life on land and return to water to reproduce.
  2. Most amphibians lay their eggs in water, which then hatch into larvae. These larvae can swim and can breathe using gills.
  3. When they become adults, most amphibians lose their gills and develop lungs. Adult amphibians also use their thin moist skin to obtain oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide.
Ex. Frogs and Toads, Salamanders

  1. Fish are cold-blooded vertebrates that spend their whole life in water. They use fins for moving about in water.
  2. Fish have gills that are used to obtain oxygen from water and dispose carbon dioxide into the water.
  3. Fish have thin overlapping plate-like structures called scales that cover their bodies.
  4. Fish reproduce by laying eggs in the water. These eggs hatch into baby fish.
Ex. Clown Fish, Tuna, Sharks, Sting Ray, Eels, Dragonfish, Seahorse

  1. Birds are warm-blooded vertebrates that have bodies adapted for flight.
  2. Birds have feathers on their bodies and scales on their feet and legs. Their bodies are very lighweighted because of their hollow bones.
  3. Birds lay eggs on land from which baby birds hatch.
  4. Birds have wings attached to their bodies by the bones of their forelimbs. Majority of the birds can fly, although there are some flightless birds.
  5. Birds have lungs for breathing air.
Ex. Parrot, Pigeon, Woodpecker, Eagle, Ostrich, Penguin, Falcon, Flamingo

  1. Reptiles are cold-blooded vertebrates. Some reptiles live on land, whereas some live in water.
  2. Reptiles have dry scales covering their bodies. These scales are replaced throughout a reptile's lifetime.
  3. Most reptiles hibernate during the winter.
  4. Reptiles have lungs for breathing air.
  5. Reptiles reproduce by laying eggs on land from which young ones hatch.
Ex. Snakes, Lizards, Turtles, Alligators, Crocodiles, Dinosaurs(extinct)
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